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In recent times there has been an increase in the number of bed bug infestations. Bed bugs are common all over the world and have been found in Australia in tiny numbers. Recently they have become widespread with infestations increasing substantially in Victoria, and parts of the world, over the last ten decades. .
The main reason for the increase is thought to be due to insecticide resistance; modern bed bugs are resilient to many of those commonly used insecticides. Other contributing factors include the increase in world travel with bed bugs being spread in luggage, shoes and clothing. Once acquired at large turnover accommodation, the hitchhiking bed bugs could then be transported and brought back to the houses of guests in their own luggage.
Many hostels have now banned the use of travellers own sleeping linen in shared accommodation as a safety precaution against this pest.
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In early infestations, bed bugs are usually found around the seams, beading and folds of mattresses, sleeping bags and sheets. Later, as the infestation spreads, the bugs move to any tiny crevices, which might be in bed heads, skirting boards, cracks in plaster and bedroom furniture. Due to their colour, mature bed bugs can easily be spotted with the naked eye on sheets and bedding, but rather tough to view on brown wooden floors and other dark surfaces.
Heavily used hiding places are evident by black or brown spots of blood excrement or spotting. There may be an offensive sweet odour when bed bugs are numerous. This odour sometimes described as buggy is similar to the odour when a stink bug is squashed. White eggs, the egg cases and moulted skin cubes may be found near these places, as well as living bed bugs. .
Bed bugs use pheromones to communicate. This method of communication and also the release of alarm pheromones can make them quite difficult to treat as bed bugs become awake and quickly vacate the region being treated if not previously properly quarantined.
Bed bugs can spread into a new residence by traveling between multi-unit housing such as dormitories and apartment buildings. Once they find a helpful hints suitable host, bed bugs will nourish and therefore are very likely to haven in close proximity. In this case, new locations can quickly become infested with bed bugs in a brief amount of time. .
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Different people have varying reactions to the bites of bed bugs, depending on a number of variables. Some people have little or no reaction to the sting. In others the bite site can get red and intensely itchy. This can occur during the course of the night or might take up to develop.
The wheals can range from 2 cm to 5 cm in width with inflammation common. Anaphylactic shock could occur in individuals that are highly contagious, but this is very rare. .
Discomfort and loss of sleep is common in the emotional effects of bed bugs. Bites may be found on many different places on the body. Another feature is that the bites are in orderly rows, unlike the random pattern of mosquitoes. The bed bug causes these rows being disturbed during feeding and having to pierce the skin to nourish again.
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Bed bugs mainly feed on humans but will feed on other mammals and poultry if necessary. Even though they can carry diseases like hepatitis they're not known to transfer these ailments to individuals.
Bed bug eggs' survival is an issue. It is not uncommon for the live bed bugs amongst an infestation to be completely eradicated during an effective treatment cycle, only to have the remaining or surviving eggs hatch and populate the exact location once again. The these details eggs can also have an incubation period of up to two weeks and could be deposited in hidden areas that are tough to treat. .
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This stubborn tendency of bed bug infestations are made more problematic because of the now smaller dimensions of the newly re-emerged mattress bug nymph. Once an infestation is detected, all adjoining chambers need to be inspected and treated if additionally affected.
This can be finished by the use of adhesive tape (if insect numbers are extremely small) to trap the insect. Vacuuming can also be recommended before substance treatment as it eliminates all dust and debris from the site of this infestation making it easier for following chemical control to penetrate and in turn succeed.